The Modern Piano

Continuing from my previous post, The Pianoforte until the end of the 18th century, the piano continued evolving.

Southwell upright piano 1798

 

I have previously discussed the attempts of creating upright keyboards such as the clavicytherium and the pyramid piano. In 1798, William Southwell experimented with the square piano in order to create an upright square. Similar to the pyramid piano, was the upright grand. The style of an upright grand incorporating a bookcase was firstly made by William Stodart c.1795. The instrument was used domestically as a piano and as a furniture. This piano was a transition from the horizontal grand piano to his cabinet piano. 

 

 

In 1800, the soundboard was dropped to the floor by John Isaac Hawkins (1772–1855) in Philadelphia. He called his instrument the portable grand piano. The idea was for the piano to be easily moved by handles on each side. The particular instrument was the first attempt of creating an upright piano, with perpendicular strings and an iron frame. It was the first time that the soundboard was dropped to the floor. The piano has double strings, a moderator and a swell, which opens shutters in the case below the keyboard.

At the same time with Hawkins, the Viennese instrument maker Matthias Müller had also created an upright piano, the vis-à-vis Ditanaklasis. Müller’s instrument had two keyboards for two players. The keyboard with black naturals and white sharps is at 4 foot pitch and the other keyboard with white naturals and black sharps is at 8 foot pitch. In 1803 he built a ditanaklasis with one keyboard. The strings of the instrument were struck in the middle of the string, which produced a sound similar to a basset horn.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

In 1807 the Cabinet piano was introduced by William Southwell, and was built through 1840s. Southwell’s aim was to prevent the pianoforte of being frequently out of tune. They were tall  reaching a height of seventy-two inches. The strings of the instrument were placed vertical and the hammers were near the top of the instrument and plucked the strings from the front. There was also a sticker action; stickers extended upwards from the key and controlled by hammers.

Around 1815, Robert Wornum (1780–1852) invented the cottage piano, a short instrument with vertical stringing. In 1826, he added a pizzicato pedal between the two usual pedals. He had also introduced the tape-check action; a check worked against the hammer butt and raised the damper wire.

Ignace Pleyel (1757-1831) with Jean-Henri Pape (1789-1875) imitated the tape-action of Wornum in France. They called their piano a pianino. Pleyel adapted the tape-check action and continued manufacturing pianino’s throughout the 19th century. The action was also modified in Germany and eventually became the action used in the modern upright piano. 

Sébastien Érard (1752-1831) in 1821 patented the double escapement action; which is what is used in the modern grand piano. His action allowed notes to be repeated faster and easier than the single actions that had already existed. In comparison with Cristofori’s single escapement, where the hammer struck the string and fell back even if the key was still depressed. Without the escapement the hammer would be held against the string. With Érard’s double escapement, the jack resets beneath the hammer whilst the key is partially released, allowing the note to be repeated quickly without the hammer returning to its original position.

Something that I found interesting whilst researching Ignaz Moscheles, in his diaries (from Recent Music and Musicians) in June 1, 1825 he wrote:

“Pierre Erard showed and explained to me on a dumb keyboard his uncle Sebastian’s now completed invention, for which the firm has just taken out a patent. I saw the earliest experiment of this invention in Paris. It consists in the key, when only sunk halfway, again rising and repeating the note. I was the first to play upon one of the newly completed instruments, and found it of priceless value for the repetition of notes. In the matter of fullness and softness of tone, there is something yet to be desired, and had a long conversation on the subject with Erard”

In 1830-1831 it he commented that the touch was “vastly improved”. Regarding the tone of the piano, Moscheles’ wife Charlotte Moscheles wrote: 

Moscheles himself, was greatly favored by the improvements made in Erard’s pianos; their organ-like tone and full resonant sounds gave Moscheles such pleasure that no doubt he had every incentive to bring into relief these great excellences, and display them in his adagios. “A very violoncello”, he used to say, praising the tone, which he could prolong without using the pedals; to the excessive use of these he had a rooted aversion. “A good player” he used to say, must only rarely use the assistance of either pedal, otherwise he misuses it”. 

Video: Erard 1850

In 1825 the first square piano with an iron frame was created by Alpheus Babcock (1785-1842).

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Felt hammers pleyel 1844

Felt hammers. Pleyel, 1844.

Jean-Henri Pape in 1826 had introduced the felt hammers (until then leather hammers were used). Felt hammers are still used today.

In 1828, he also had introduced the console piano in Paris, a low upright piano. It was the first instrument to be built with over-stringing, with the bass strings passing over the treble strings.  Video: Pape Console piano 1844

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

In 1830, Babcock also patented cross-stringing/overstrung pianos which eventually replaced straight strung pianos. The aim was for strings to cross over one another vertically in order to allow longer strings to fit into smaller frames, by using two bridges instead of one.

In 1843, Jonas Chickering (1798-1853) improved Babcock’s iron frame and arranged one for the first time in a grand piano. Later in the century, the iron frame was altered and improved in order to hold more resistance in grand pianos by Steinway & Sons. From 1853 they have also started using the cross-crossing method in their square pianos which was later applied to their grand pianos. Eventually other builders started applying these methods.

The following year, in 1844, Jean-Louis Boisselot (1782-1847) invented the sostenuto pedal (firstly called sustaining tones). The pedal sustains only the notes that are pressed when the pedal is also pressed. The sostenuto pedal keeps the dampers raised only of the specific keys, whereas the sustain pedal (damper pedal that already existed) raises all the dampers.

Steinway 1874

In 1874 the sostenuto pedal was copied by Steinway. His first design was for the square piano, however he later applied it to his upright and grand pianos.

Video: illustration of Sostenuto and Sustain pedals

Additionally, in 1872 Steinway invented the duplex scaling  which is still used in some grand pianos. Duplex scaling enhances the tone by permitting the part of the string at the end (which is damped and does not vibrate) to vibrate.

During the era, the piano range had increased from the five octaves that Mozart’s piano had. Broadwood firm was the first to build pianos from 1790 having more than 5 octaves and eventually reaching 7 octaves by 1820. Eventually the piano range reached 88 keys with 52 white and 32 black.

Regarding the pedals of the piano, as already discussed they firstly appeared as hand stops, and then as knee levers. A precise date to the transition of pedals is not specified since the transition was not adopted by all the makers at the same time. In England pedals were found earlier. In the previous post I mentioned Americus Backers bi-chord pianoforte of 1772, the earliest English piano surviving with 2 pedals (una corda, sustaining). Later, trichord pianos included a device at the right side of the keyboard which controlled the change from three chords to one or two chords in order to permit una corda. The device was used until 1830. After that the una corda pedal was impossible.

Around 1806 Broawood pianos came with three pedals, an una corda and two for sustaining (the damper rail was divided in the middle C). Because it was impossible for una corda and both sustaining pedals to be used simultaneously the sustaining pedals were replaced by a split pedal which divided in half and performed the same function. Around 1820 the harmonic swell pedal was used by Clementi.  The pedal enhanced the tone by affecting the vibration of the strings.

Graf 1817 6 pedals

Conrad Graf, c.1817. 6 pedal

In France, c.1796, Érard imitated the use of the pedal from the English pianos. Nonetheless none of his grand pianos of the period survived. Viennese pianos started having 4 to 5 pedals after 1805. Concrad Grad (1782-1851) used 5 pedals until 1820 (una corda, bassoon, two degrees of moderator and sustaining). From then and until 1835, he used an una corda, bassoon, moderator and sustaining. A few years later, the bassoon pedal was replaced with a second moderator and in 1839 the piano pedals were reduced to three (una corda, moderator, sustaining). Two of Graf’s pianos had 6 pedals, including the Turkish music pedal. On the other hand, Streicher firm (successor of Stein) had five pedals until 1818 (the fifth pedal was a Turkish music pedal). Afterwards he used 4 pedals (una corda, bassoon, moderator, sustaining) and from 1840 only two pedals.

Summary of the pedals thus far:

  • Bassoon: a strip of parchment comes into contact with the strings to give a buzzing sound (usually part of the Turkish music pedal)
  • Harmonic swell: enhancing the tone by affecting the vibration of the strings.
  • Lute: it was Wornum’s pizzicato pedal. A strip of felt placed in contact with the strings to produce a more lute sound
  • Moderator: applies strips of leather/cloth between the hammers and the strings for a more muted sound (the modern practice pedal)
  • Turkish music: it is like the bassoon pedal however it also includes a drumstick (hitting the piano’s soundboard), a triangle (single bell or 3 separate bells), cymbals (2-3 strips of brass knocked against the bass strings) Video: Piano with Turkish pedal
  • Soft (buff): moves the action closer to the strings, so the hitting distance is less and the sound is quieter
  • Sustaining: raises the dampers on the strings so allow them to vibrate freely when the keys are not depressed
  • Sostenuto: sustaining only the notes that are pressed when the pedal is also pressed.
  • Una cordashifts the piano to keyboard in order to struck only one string

The Modern Piano

The modern piano exists in two form: the grand piano and the upright piano.

The strings and frame of the grand piano are horizontal, with the strings extending away from the keyboard.  It comes in different size such as as the concert grand which is approximately 3 m., the grand about 1.8 and the smaller the baby grand. The difference is that the longer the piano, the longer the strings used therefore the louder the instrument sounds.

Upright pianos have a vertical frame and strings, with the stringing extending in both directions and the hammers moving horizontally. There are some upright pianos with a tall frame and longer strings. These pianos are called upright grand pianos. Pianos between 107 to 114cm are called studio pianos. And pianos with shorter hammers and a little bit shorter than the studio piano are called console pianos. 

The pedals used in the modern piano are the soft pedal/una corda, sostenuto and the sustain (mostly referred to as ‘the pedal’). There are pianos with the middle pedal (sostenuto) missing. Most upright pianos have three pedals, and instead of the sostenuto pedal, which is mostly found on expensive upright pianos, have the practice pedal. Additionally, the soft pedal on the upright piano is not a truly una corda pedal since it does not shift the action like in the grand piano (the entire keyboard moved to the right in order for the hammers to hit 2 or 3 strings). Thus the left pedal of the upright piano is mostly a half-blow pedal, it moves the hammers closer to the strings in order to reduce the volume of the sound.

The modern piano has 88 keys. The bass strings have only one string, the tenor has two and the treble strings have three unison strings. Therefore, the piano can have up to 236 strings and supports a pressure of 36000 pounds. The strings are made of high-tensile steel wire.

The action of the grand piano is an improved action of Erard’s double escapement and as already discussed some grand pianos have duplex scaling. Whereas the action of the upright is based on Wornum’s tape-check action. The main difference of the two pianos is that because the parts of the upright piano move horizontally, the key must be allowed to come all the way back before it is played again. In the grand piano, a key is repeated after it has only returned to about 1/3 of  its way. Therefore, a grand piano offers more control as well as faster repetition in very rapid passages. What is more, modern upright pianos are overstrung and underdamped (the dampers are situated under the hammers). Straight-strung over-damped pianos are older pianos. The grand pianos are also mostly overstrung.   Video: Grand piano action  Video: Upright Piano action

Bösendorfer’s Imperial 290 Grand Piano has 8 full octaves, 97 keys instead of 88. The extra keys are found in the bass and coloured in black.

Video: Imperial 290 Bösendorfer

Stuart & Sons has also created a piano with 97 keys, and they have also created a piano with a longer range with 102 keys. Stuart & Sons not only have expanded the key range, but they have also added a fourth pedal, the dulce pedal. The fourth pedal acts like a second soft pedal and reduces the intensity of the hammer strike.

Feurich has also added a fourth pedal, the Pédale Harmonique which gives an expressive sound. When the pedal is fully pressed, the notes are not dampened and when it is half pressed, the dampers are raised from all the strings until a note is played, which then causes the damper to fall down in order to mute the note. The other strings left to vibrate sympathetically producing e reverberation. Video: Feurich Pedal Harmonique

Fazioli piano F308 has a fourth pedal which reduces the volume without modifying the timbre. Video: Fazioli F308

Grotrian Steinweg created a double piano the GROTRIAN Duo which allows two pianists to play on one piano. The two pianos are connected by a bridge, thus they sound like one instrument instead of two. The instrument can be separated in order to be played individually. Video: Grotrian Duo

Grotrian Steinweg.jpg

Nowadays, there are many makers and each brand has something different to offer. From upright pianos that offer the tonal quality of a baby grand piano, to pianos with 4 pedals and 102 keys, to crystal pianos, to galaxy pianos and to pianos with different decorations. The most known brands are Bösendorfer, C.Bechstein, Blüthner, Fazioli, Heintzman & Co., Mason and Hamlin, Petrof, Schimmel, Shigeru Kawai, Steinway & Sons (which includes Boston and Essex pianos), Yamaha Corporation and many more!

 

 

The Pianoforte until the end of the 18th century

This blog began with the history of the piano and its evolution. I have taken it from the very beginning, discussing the beginning of the string instruments and how they all evolved and contributed to the evolution of keyboard instruments. I have referred to the main keyboard instruments that existed, and how they evolved to the piano. I have not discussed the modern use of those instruments and how they developed after the 18th century.  The aim was to discuss how the piano came to be and how it evolved to our modern piano.

The instruments that I have referred to so far are:

  • Monochord
  • Organistrum/Symphony
  • Chekker/Eschiquier
  • Epigonion
  • Psaltery
  • Hammered dulcimer (santoor)
  • Hydraulis
  • Pipe organ
  • Portative organ (organetto)
  • Positive organ
  • Regal
  • Clavichord (fretted, unfretted, pedal)
  • Clavicymbalum
  • Harpsichord (pedal harpsichord)
  • Clavicytherium
  • Spinet
  • Oval spinet
  • Spinettone
  • Virginal (Muselar, spinett, ottavino, double virginal)
  • Archicembalo
  • Claviorganum

All of those instruments contributed to the creation and evolution of the modern piano. One particular instrument though is considered to be the ancestor of the piano; the dulce melos (doucemelle), a keyed dulcimer, that looked like a clavichord. The strings of the instrument were struck, not plucked, by hammers on keys.

If the instrument existed, none have survived. The only iconographic evidence that exists is by Henri Arnaut de Zwolle from his manuscripts from 1440. He described three dulce melos; the first a normal dulcimer plucked by the fingers or struck by wooden sticks. The second and third instruments were played by keyboard. The second dulce melos had parallel bridges and the third oblique bridges. The instrument had about 3 octaves and twenty pairs of strings with tonal bridges under each group forming an octave. It is possible that Arnaut had only suggested the instrument and that it never existed.

Video: Dulce Melos

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The inventor of the piano was Bartolomeo di Francesco Cristofori (1655-1731) of Padua. In the previous post, I have mentioned that in the late 17th century he created the oval spinet and the spinettone for Prince Ferdinando of the Medici family of Florence. Cristofori  was appointed in 1688 to the Florentine court to look after the Medici musical instrument collection.

The inventory of musical instruments of de Medici in 1700, (Inventario di diverse sorte d’instrumenti musicali in proprio del Serenissimo Sig. Principe Ferdinando di Toscana) mentions a new instrument by Cristofori, the Arpicembalo. The inventory describes the instrument as “a large keyboard instrument by Bartolomeo Cristofori, of new invention that produces soft and loud, with two sets of strings at unison pitch….”.

The journalist Scipione Maffei, in 1711 published anonymously an article where he named the instrument gravicembalo col piano e forte;

Nuova invenzione d’un gravicembalo col piano e forte; aggiunte alcune considerazioni sopra gli strumenti musicali.

The instrument was probably invented around 1698-1699. Nonetheless, a precise date is given in an inscription in Gioseffo Zarlino’s Le Istitutioni harmoniche by a Florentine court musician,  Federico Meccoli. He writes “these are the ways in which it is possible to play the Arpicimbalo del piano e forte, invented by Master Bartolomeo Christofani of Padua in the year 1700”;

Questi sono gl’andamenti che si possono adattare in su  l’Apri Cimbalo del piano e forte. inventato da M.ro Bartolomeo Christofani Padovano. l’Anno 1700.

Cristofori attempted to combine the advantages of the clavichord and the harpsichord into one new instrument. The clavichord could be used expressively by controlling loudness and timbre, however because of its size it was not loud enough thus it was used as a home instrument. The harpsichord was mostly a concert solo instrument, yet it lacked the expressivity of the harpsichord. Cristofori’s instrument sounded like a harpsichord but instead of plucking the strings they were struck by hammers. Basically the hammer replaced the clavichords’ tangent and was rebounded from the string, instead of touching the string all the time while it was sounding.

Cristofori invented an action with an escapement mechanism. When the key was pressed, the hammer struck the string and instantly returned back to its position, letting the string to vibrate until the key was released, which then activated a dampening mechanism on a jack to mute the string (adapted from the harpsichord). The hammer was held back by an action called back check, until the player released the key, in order to avoid the hammer from hitting back the string. Cristofori’s action was very light that gave the capability for repetition.

He had also invented the una corda mechanism, which it was the first stop to modify the sound. In the modern piano, the una corda or the ‘soft pedal’ is operated by the left pedal. On Cristofori’s pianoforte though, it was operated by a hand knob located on the side of the keyboard. When it was activated, the entire action shifted to the right, so the hammers would only strike one string (una corda) instead of the two strings that Cristofori’s pianos had.

Cristofori did not live to see music written for his instrument. The first music published for his pianoforte was the twelve Sonate da cimbalo di piano e forte detto volgarmente di martelletti by Lodovico Giustini (1685–1743) in 1732. The sonatas contained dynamic expressions such as più piano and più forte that was impossible to execute on a harpsichord.

Only three of Cristofori’s pianos have survived:

  • 1720 piano, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
  • 1722 piano, includes an una corda stop at the Museo degli Strumenti Musicali in Rome.
  • 1726 piano, includes an una corda stop at the Musikinstrumenten Museum at Karl Marx University in Leipzig, Germany.

Video: Cristofori’s 1720 piano    Video: Escapement action of Cristofori’s 1726 pianoforte

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

When Cristofori’s drawings and descriptions were published by Maffei in 1711, instrument makers began to recreated Cristofori’s instrument. In 1716, Jean Marius submitted four models of hammer harpsichord (clavecins à maillets), an action for an upright instrument and a down-striking action (wooden hammers attached vertically at the end of the key levers) to the French Royal Academy of Science. In 1725 Maffei’s article was translated to German by Johann Ulrich König who called Cristofori’s instrument a harpsichord of new invention, with soft and loud.

Gottfried Silbermann (1683–1753), a German instrument maker, used Cristofori’s designs and created his own instrument. He copied Cristofori’s actions, yet he failed to copy correctly the back check. Additionally, he invented his own device, the modern damper pedal. The damper action was, like Cristofori’s una corda, controlled by a hand stop on the side of the keyboard. When activated the dampers were lifted away from the strings, permitting them to vibrate. This device though, unlike the modern pedal that is used expressively, it produced a different tonal colour. The device could also be divided, allowing the dampers of the bass and treble sections to be lifted separately.

Around 1703-1704 Silbermann, on behalf of Pantaleon Hebenstreit (1668-1750), created an extended hammered dulcimer. The king of France Louis XIV, in 1705, called the instrument Pantaleon in his honour. It seems by 1727 Silbermann, had added to those large cimbaloms, removable keyboards to make the playing easier. Basically the Pantalon (Hämmerwercke/Hämmerpantalone) was a large dulcimer and had about 200 strings, double or triple. The instrument did not have dampers leaving the strings to vibrate freely.   Video: Silbermann Piano

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

tangentenflucc88gel-c-1794.jpeg

In 1739, a new design appeared, the tangent action by Christoph Gottlieb Schröter (1699-1782). The tangent action originates from the clavichord’s action. Both tangents are activated by the player pushing the keys for the tangent to be lifted up and hit the string. Although in the clavichord the tangent stays in contact with the string while the note is still sounding, in the tangent piano the tangent is rebounded, like in the pianoforte’s escapement. The tangent action also has dampers on the jacks to mute the string when the key is depressed, and like its contemporary instruments it may have stops such as an una corda and Silbermann’s damper stop. The sound of the instrument is a combination of a clavichord and a harpsichord and it was used throughout the 18th century.

Video: Tangent Piano   Video: Tangent action

In 1739,  Domenico del Mela of Gagliano had created the Vertical upright pianoforte in Italy. Like the clavicytherium, the instrument was a pianoforte, with the soundboard going above the keyboard. In 1745, Christian Ernst Friederici created the Pyramid piano (Pyramidenflügel) in Germany, also an upright piano with the soundboard above the keyboard. The shape of the instrument was like a pyramid , with the strings running diagonally upwards. Friederici basically copied the design of his contemporary grand piano into a vertical form. It was a simple version of Cristofori’s 1720 piano, however it lacked the feature of repetition. The instrument had doors at the front that would open exposing the strings. By 1840 both upright and pyramid pianos stopped being produced.

Video: Pyramidenflügel

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Johannes Zumpe (1726-1790) was the lead maker of the English square piano (Tafelklavier) from 1766 to c.1790 (whether he was actually the first creator of a square piano is unknown). The square piano was a small rectangular piano with a range of about 5 octaves. At the beginning it sounded like a harpsichord. Eventually its sound became more ‘pianistic’.

The action of the square piano is called the English single. It was a very single action, without an escapement, with a leather rod under the hammer which bounced into contact with the string. From 1768 onwards Zumpe’s square pianos had three hand-operated stops in the compartment at the left of the keyboard. One was to lift the treble dampers, the second for the bass dampers and the third pressed a buff leather against the strings. When used with the other stops it produced a gut-strung harp tone. Because the single action was limited in the obtainment of dynamics, the double action was invented by John Geib in 1786. His action featured an intermediate lever which increased the speed of the hammer, as well as an escapement so the hammer would fall away from the string whilst the key was pressed. By the mids of the 19th century square pianos exceeded 6 octaves.    Video: Square Piano 1789 by Johannes Bätz.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Johann Andreas Silbermann (1712-1783), Gottfried Silbermann’s older brother, was the author of the  old German action the Prellmechanik, around 1769, which later became the Viennese action. The Prellmechanik also derived from the clavichord, however instead of having a tangent, there was a moving hammer bound with the key lever. When the key was pressed the key lever lifted up while the hammer’s tail was blocked, flipping the hammerhead (which pointed towards the keyboard) to hit the string.

Johann Andreas Stein (1728-1792), c.1781 improved it and simplified Cristofori’s action (adding a back check) into the Prellmechanik with escapement, the hammer could escape after the note was played leaving the strings to vibrate, permitting a louder sound and a quicker response. Stein instead of using pedals or hand-stops, included a knee-operated lever in replacement of Silbermann’s damper stop.

The oldest surviving grand pianoforte with pedals is a pianoforte made in 1772 by Americus Backers, and was owned by the first Duke of Wellington. Backers is therefore considered to be the first one to have used pedals instead of hand stops and knee levers. The particular piano is also regarded as the first English grand piano. The piano has an una corda and damper lift which are activated by pedals. Both pedals are incorporated to the instruments front legs. When the left pedal, una corda, is activated, the whole keyboard slides to the right, causing the hammers to strike only one string, when the right pedal is activated, a mechanism lifts all the dampers away from the strings.   Video: Americus Backers 1772 piano

After Backers invention, Adam Beyer incorporated, from 1775, a damper pedal in his square pianos as well as a nag’s head swell pedal in 1777, like the one used in the harpsichord from 1754. The pedal caused the right side of the lid to open.

 

erard-1793.png

From 1783, Broadwood started using the una corda and the sustaining pedal. In France, Érard was the first to add several pedals to his pianos. The piano shown is from 1793 and it has a buff (harp), a moderator (celeste), a sustain for the bass notes, a sustain for the treble notes and a swell.

 

Anton Walter 1782 mozart

Mozart’s piano by Anton Walter, c.1782, at Salzburg Museum

The Austrian pianos replaced the hand stops with knee levers in the 18th century, until the knee levers were replaced by pedals in the early 19th century.  Anton Walter (1752-1826), the most popular instrument maker of Viennese pianos, altered Stein’s model and contributed further to the sound of the instrument. For instance, Mozart’s piano (c.1782) included three hand stops and two knee levers that worked as the two damper stops. (the specific instrument was refurbished and modified internally for Constanze, Mozart’s widow, c.1808, so whether that was the original mechanism its debatable).

Video: Anton Walter Piano

 

The piano had a long development. Many instrument makers experimented with different actions and mechanisms for the piano. It is impossible though to refer to all of them, thus I have briefly discussed the instruments that had a dominant role in the history. During the 18th century the Viennese pianos were better in articulation, fast scales and passage work whereas as the French and English piano were more expressive instruments.
groovys_sticker-037_1

 

Coming next: The modern piano  ♪ ♫

The Clavichord

In my post The string instrument: how it all started I have discussed Pythagoras’ monochord not only because it was the beginning of the string instrument but also because the clavichord has evolved from the monochord; they share the same mechanism ideology.

The clavichord was made around 1400 and was popular until 1800.  At the beginning, the clavichord was even referred to as monochord.

There seems to be a confusion regarding the first written reference of the word clavichord. I have read different sources referring to the word clavichord that do not correspond. One reliable source that really puzzled me was that the first record of the word clavichord was in 1404 in Der Minne Regel by Eberhardus Cersne:

“Das Clavichord und Clavizimbel erscheinen auf der Abbildung in Virdungs Büchlein als viereckige Kätschen” (The Clavichord and Clavizimbel appear in the figures in Virdung’s booklet as square boxes).

However, this is completely wrong. Since the writer refers to Sebastian Virdung’s (born around 1465) book Musica getuscht, that was firstly published in 1511. So how could Cersne referred in 1404 to Virdung’s book that was published in 1511?

fretted clavichord

Fretted Clavichord

Nevertheless,  the clavichord is a small wooden box and does not have legs or a stand. Because of its size it has a small sound, therefore it was meant as a private instrument used at home and not as a public instrument. The first clavichord had a range of 3 to 3 ½ diatonic octaves in C. By the middle of the 18th century clavichords had five octaves.

The strings and the soundboard are located horizontally behind the keyboard. The strings are in the left and are attached to pins on one side, over the bridge to tuning pins on the right side. When the keys are pressed, the back part of the key rises and a small brass percussion instrument – a tangent – touches the strings, determines the length of the string and eventually the string starts to vibrate. The string only vibrates from the tangent to the bridge. If played too hard, the string is stretched and sounds louder. This is because the key has a direct mechanical contact with the string through the tangent. Basically, depending on the pressure applied on the key the pitch can be altered in order to produce vibrato, which is called Bebung.

The Bebung is produced by pressing the key up and down with the finger and it only produces pitches above the note. So, the clavichord, depending on the force the keys are pressed, could be used expressively. The player can control the volume, attack and duration. When the key is released, the back of the key returns to its place and touches a woven which is found between the pairs of strings and stops the string from vibrating.

In the video in the following link, the mechanism of the clavichord can be seen, as well as the use of Bebung. Video: Clavichord action, and Bebung

The Clavichord has more keys than strings because each string has a few tangents, unlike the modern piano in which each key has its own string. This clavichord is called fretted clavichord. Most clavichords were double or triple (two or three notes would be played on the same string). And because of that those notes could not be played together (old music though does not require notes to be played simultaneously). In other words, like Pythagoras’ monochord, the strings are divided into specific rations in order to give a specific pitch.

Video: Fretted Clavichord, Bach BWV 846

 

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The oldest surviving signed clavichord was made in Venice in 1543 by Dominicus Pisaurensis. It has his signature written in ink above the keys DOMINICVS PISAVRENSIS M D XXXXIII. The clavichord is held at the Instrument museum of the University of Leipzig. This harpsichord instead of one curved bridge it has 3 separate bridges instead, which is more common in later North-European and Italian clavichords.

In 1693, Johann Speth in his book Ars Magna Consoni Et Dissoni asks for a clavichord that each key has its own string and not the strings touched by more keys.  After time clavichords would come into larger sizes, and around the 17th century unfretted clavichords would start appearing. The unfretted clavichord means that each key had its own string, thus the instrument is also bigger because there are more strings. Because of that and its bigger soundboard, in comparison to the fretted clavichord, it sounds a bit different. More than one note can be played simultaneously, since now the keys do not share the same string. The first unfretted clavichord was built in 1716 by Johann Michael Heinitz.  Video: Unfretted clavichord

Gerstenberg clavichord pedal, 1766

There were also pedal clavichords, with more than one clavichords added together, in order to be used by organists for practice.

Video: Pedal Gerstenberg Replica Clavichord

In all, the advantage of the clavichord is that it takes less space, it has less tension in the soundboard, there are fewer strings to tune and the most important of all it is that its the most expressive early keyboard.

groovys_sticker-037_1

Next Post: The Harpsichord family! ♪ ♫